By P. G. Ormandy, K. Guy
Pergamon sequence of Monographs in Laboratory options, quantity three: An creation to Metallurgical Laboratory options covers better equipment and methods in metallurgy on the subject of the sensible elements of laboratory paintings, via experimentation, perform and adventure. The ebook discusses metallography, extreme temperature, warmth therapy, and trying out of fabrics. The textual content additionally describes vacuum suggestions, powder metallurgy, and becoming a member of of metals. actual metallurgists and scholars taking comparable classes will locate the booklet precious.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Metallurgical Laboratory Techniques
A furnace may be more easily constructed if a replacement winding is used, but the winding should be carefully selected to obtain the correct temperature. Construction of the furnace may be carried out as follows. Using cement-asbestos board, a box of suitable size to accommodate the muffle and sufficient insulation is constructed. The front panel of the box should be fitted with a "cut-out", cut to the 43 Metallurgical Laboratory Techniques inside dimension of the muffle. The bottom of the box is lined with lightweight refractory bricks and the muffle positioned on them.
With the exception of zinc, lead and tin and their alloys, all the commonly used metals and alloys melt above 6 0 0 °C, and many c o m m o n heat treatments, particularly those for steels, may involve temperatures u p to 1 0 0 0 °C. F o r the melting and heat treatment of the more refractory metals such as chromium, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, even higher temperatures are necessary, and in addition there is a need for accurate control and measurement. The two main sources of heating power available in the metallurgical laboratory are electricity and gas.
Knowing the current and the voltage, the total resistance of the winding may be simply calculated from Ohm's Law, which states V = RI, where V is the voltage, R is the resistance (in ohms) and / is the current (in amperes). Thus for a maximum current of 5 amperes at 240 volts, the necessary resistance is 48 ohms. The required resistance per foot may then be found by dividing the length of the winding by the total resistance. Using this figure, a wire of the correct gauge with the correct resistance per foot length may be ascertained from the manufacturer's resistance tables.
An Introduction to Metallurgical Laboratory Techniques by P. G. Ormandy, K. Guy