By R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)
Contents: creation to Thermodynamics Entropy, unfastened strength and Chemical Equilibrium strategies response Kinetics Electrochemistry Interfacial Phenomena Extraction and Refining of Metals Corrosion and Electrodeposition
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Extra info for An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy
2. 1, is important. We know that if we were able to watch one of the molecules in the gas system, we might see it pass from one chamber to the other, and back, through the connecting tube —moving against the "spontaneous change" which was taking place in the system. Only if we consider all the molecules in the system—by means of a statistical average—is this Second Law obeyed. Thermodynamics is not concerned with the behaviour of the individual molecules of a gas system—only the statistical average behaviour of the system.
We would be surprised to find that if two ingots—one at 100°C and the other at 500°C—were placed close to one another in a soaking pit with no other source of heat, the hotter ingot increased in temperature until it melted, whereas the colder ingot cooled down to 0°C. Instead, the temperature of the hotter ingot would always decrease as heat flowed out from it (whether by radiation, convection or conduction) to raise the temperature of the colder ingot. If we consider a pattern formed by coloured counters on a flat board (Fig.
4. Some Thermodynamic Relationships Involving Entropy If we consider the system shown in Fig. 5, the entropy of the system at A can be 5A &nd at B, 5 B > so that if the system changes reversibly from state A to state B, Δ5 = 5 Β - 5 Α , and is independent of the path taken. If the change were irreversible, Δ5 would still be the same because 5 is a thermodynamic variable. In completing the cycle A —» B -» A, Δ5 = 5 Β - 5 Α + 5 Α - 5 Β = 0, because we finish up where we started, and there is no net change in entropy.
An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy by R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)