By Bessi U.
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Extra info for An analytic counterexample to the KAM theorem
22. 7]. Eluent: mixture (1:1) of methanol and 10 mM malonic acid - sodium hydroxide buffer. 5 kV (full squares); 10 kV (open squares). 22. 4. These tendencies derive partly from the increase of vosmin the alkaline region. 22 are focused at a same value, ca. pH 4, because benzoic acid does not form a dissociated ion in acidic conditions (pH < 4). 40]. 24. To calculate v,,, from Equation (4), it is necessary to determine vpresand R for ethanol. 4, because the three carboxylic acid groups of trimesic acid are completely dissociated.
When bubbles form in the system, the current is often stopped, and the system shuts down. In pressurized flow-driven electrochromatography the problem can be overcome by using pressurized flow. This either carries the bubbles out of the system or because the system is kept under relatively high pressure, it facilitates dissolution of the hydrogen and oxygen generated at the electrodes. In electroosmotically driven electrochromatography (electroosmosis as the sole driving flow) it is very difficult to remove bubbles from the system.
2 Features and Operational Factors The instrumentation for electrochromatography should have the following features: 1) Any heat generated should be effectively reduced or dissipated: this is a key factor. If a capillary column with small internal diameter (50-500 pm) is used, most of the heat generated will be effectively dissipated from the outside surface of the column. 2) The detector and pump must be protected from damage that may be caused by the application of a high voltage. For example, a long fused silica capillary is used as an electrical resistance between the pump and the capillary column.
An analytic counterexample to the KAM theorem by Bessi U.