By J. Bruce Amstutz
Whilst Soviet army forces invaded Afghanistan in past due 1979, the invasion was once, right away, an try to keep a tottering Marxist executive and a caution to either East and West that the Brezhnev Doctrine of "necessary intervention" will be enforced.
Dr. J. Bruce Amstutz, U. S. cost d’affaires in Kabul from 1977 to 1980, starts off his therapy of the 1st 5 years of Soviet career with an ancient evaluate of years of Russian meddling in Afghan affairs. He follows this account with a first-hand file of the 1979 invasion, then analyzes that intervention from political, army, and monetary views. one of the very important concerns Dr. Amstutz discusses are the various Afghan political factions - pro-Soviet and resistance - their leaders, the human rights and refugee difficulties, diplomatic efforts to settle the clash, and Soviet measures to repress and indoctrinate the Afghans.
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Extra resources for Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation
0 Over a period of 20 years, Soviet pressure on the Afghans succeeded in getting the Afghans to agree lo limit all foreign economic aid projects slated for the northern. Soviet-bordering provinces to just the Soviets. 31 Later, the protest was applied to the presence of nationals of all NATO countries. Finally, the pressure evolved into a demand that the Afghans prohibit the working presence of any foreign aid experts in the northern region except the Soviets. 33 Another example of Soviet influence was Afghan acquiescence in principle in 1952 to the Soviet request that foreigners generally be prohibited from entering Afghan-Soviet border areas.
When it seized power in the Manist coup of 27 April I97K the PDPA was a small semi clandestine party, mainh urban based, and predommaniK middle class It drew membership from teacher.. (irowing Soviet Involvement 31 university students, civil servants, and military officers—not from workers or peasants. In 1967, two years after its founding, the party split into two factions; but it was reunited in 1977 as a result of Soviet pressure. 42 At the time of the coup the PDPA claimed 50,000 members (out of a population of 15 million), but this figure was exaggerated.
The State Department changed the ranking of the embassy in Kabul—to begin in 1978 with the next Ambassador, Adolph Dubs—from Class 3 to Class 4. This was the lowest category of Embassy in the State Department's internal ranking system, which determines pay and perquisites of the Ambassador and, to some extent, the Ambassador's staff. Though the State Department emphasized that this action merely was part of a worldwide review of Embassy categories, many at the Kabul Embassy saw the change as indicative of the little importance Foggy Bottom gave to Afghanistan.
Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation by J. Bruce Amstutz