Advanced Metallization for Ulsi Applications by T. S. Cale, F. S. Pintchovski PDF

By T. S. Cale, F. S. Pintchovski

ISBN-10: 1558991921

ISBN-13: 9781558991927

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Additional info for Advanced Metallization for Ulsi Applications

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In some instances, other portions of a beginning or an ending line may appear as a dashline because the number or kind of measurement did not serve to locate the dashed portion with quite the same certainty realized elsewhere. 7 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams Fields of the I-T diagram Hardness after transformation Each field on the diagram above M, is labeled to indicate the phases observed in specimens austenitized and then quenched and held isothermally within the timetemperature limits of each field.

Diagram showing how measurements 0/ isothermal trans/ormation are summarized by the isothermal trans/ormation diagram For a given steel austenitized in a particular way, information given by a series of such curves, each determined at a different constant temperature, can be summarized in a single diagram, as illustrated in the lower portion of Fig. 1. This type of diagram, which constitutes the so-called isothermal transformation diagram (I-T diagram, TTT diagram, or S-curve) of the steel, shows the time required for austenite to begin to transform, to proceed halfway, and to be completely transformed at any constant temperature in the range covered by the curves.

A given 1-T diagram, even if constructed from a complete set of highly precise measurements, is truly accurate only with respect to transformation of the particular sample of steel used in its determination. Other samples of the same grade of steel may vary appreciably in the exact time required for transformation to begin and to end at each temperature. In practice, isothermal data are usually used in connection with the heat treatment of pieces of steel very much larger than the small specimens used in developing an 1-T diagram.

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Advanced Metallization for Ulsi Applications by T. S. Cale, F. S. Pintchovski


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