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Extra info for A Manual of Current Shorthand: Orthographic and Phonetic

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A further constraint is provided by a neural system prepared to receive input at a particular time in ontogenesis, described by Greenough as an "experience-expectant" neural process (Greenough and Alcantara 1993; Greenough and Black 1992). 38 Patricia K. Kuhl and Andrew N. Meltzoff Greenough argues that neural systems are prepared for experience by an overproduction of synaptic connections that are subsequently pruned to achieve a more efficient neural organization. Synaptic overproduction occurs for cases in which a specific kind of experience is highly reliable in the environment of the organism.

In the case of birds there are data showing that learning is enhanced in the presence of a visual instance of the species. In fact, the presence of a conspecific bird allows a young bird to learn some of the notes of an alien species. ) aspects. A Theory of Early Speech Development The diverse research described here has been integrated into a model of the development of speech perception called the Native Language Magnet (NLM) theory (Kuhl 1992a, 1993a, 1993b, 1994). The theory encompasses the initial state as well as the changes brought about by 30 Patricia K.

Others appear to be uniquely human. The relevant studies have been done with three different phenomena - CP, speech prototypes and auditory-vocal mapping - and the points of convergence and divergence between monkeys and humans is of considerable interest. Tests of CP were conducted by Kuhl and colleagues on animals whose auditory systems are very similar to humans', such as chinchillas and monkeys (Kuhl and Padden 1982,1983; Kuhl and Miller 1975). The results showed that animals responded as though they heard a sudden change in the speech stimuli at the exact location where human adults perceived a shift from one phonetic category to another.

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A Manual of Current Shorthand: Orthographic and Phonetic by HENRY SWEET

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