By Fred Aftalion
Goals to supply a world point of view on chemistry, integrating the tale of chemical technology with that of the chemical undefined, and emphasizing very important advancements of the 20 th century.
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Extra resources for A history of the international chemical industry
33 8. William Henry Perkin. Courtesy Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection. 36 9. Justus Liebig's laboratory, Giessen, 1842. Courtesy Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection. 40 10. Friedrich August Kekulé. Courtesy Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection. 43 11. Louis Pasteur. 50 12. Paul Ehrlich. Courtesy Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection. 52 13. Robert Koch, Paul Ehrlich, and Emil Adolph von Behring. Courtesy Société Française Hoechst. 54 14. Alfred Nobel. 56 15. Ernest Solvay. Courtesy Solvay. 59 16.
Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid was needed for the preparation of dyes as well as for the production of hydrochloric and nitric acids used in the treatment of metals. The small amounts of acid available from Nordhausen in Saxony were very expensive, however. In 1736 in Twickenham an Englishman, Joshua Ward, first succeeded in reducing the manufacturing cost of sulfuric acid by burning a mixture of sulfur and saltpeter1 above a thin layer of water in large, wide-necked glass jars. The dilute acid produced was concentrated through distillation.
Increased productivity was its hallmark. A changing way of life has been its lasting legacy. But at about the same time, anotherand in many ways, more far-reachingrevolution was taking place, though it is not commonly referred to as such. It is now clear that a Chemical Revolution was beginning in the mid-eighteenth century, was gathering strength in the nineteenth, and was running full force in the twentieth. Not a single convulsion, this Page xviii Chemical Revolution has been a continuing series of interconnected developments, going off like a string of Chinese firecrackers, which show no signs of letting up.
A history of the international chemical industry by Fred Aftalion